The Jews say this is the location of the First (and second) Temple. They also say that the seed of the earth, the first rock from which all the world was made, is here.
The Muslims say this is where Mohammad ascended to Heaven.
It is now Jordanian territory, owned by Jordan and governed by Muslims. There are specific times Christian tourists are permitted to visit, but you must be modestly dressed (no arms or legs showing) and you cannot bring books or backpacks. There is no preaching of any kind allowed, and any tour explanations must be given while the group walks. You cannot just stand and look or talk, no matter the topic of conversation. You have to line up to get in starting at 7am because they close the gates at 10am (even if you waited in line for two hours), so that you are out by 1030 (used to be 11) so they can prepare for Muslim prayers at noon.